The course will give an introduction to surface properties of relevance in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Emphasis will be given to the crystallographic structure, electronic states, thermodynamics and lattice and electron dynamics at the surface, and to gas surface interaction and catalytic reactions in the heterogeneous phase.
Frontal lectures (40 hours):
Surface crystallographic structure.
- The geometric surface plane and the two-dimensional surface lattice, its unit cell and symmetry properties, and surface relaxation and reconstruction.
- Direct and reciprocal lattices.
- Notation of surface structure: low Miller index surfaces, vicinal surfaces, superlattices.
- Examples of the reconstruction of metal and semiconductor surfaces.
- Modification of the surface structure by physisorption and chemisorption and crystal growth modes.
- Determination of the surface structure: diffraction methods vs microscopy.
- Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and treatment of multiple scattering and dynamical LEED.
- Small angle scattering and high resolution in reciprocal space.
- Low energy electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopies (STM, AFM).
- Characterization of surface composition: Auger electron and X-Ray induced photoemission.
- Surface excess quantities.
- Surface energy, surface tension and work needed to create a surface.
- Surface heat capacity.
- Surface energy and surface composition for alloys segregation.
- Island growth and ripening phenomena.
Surface Lattice Dynamics.
- The Surface phonon spectrum, bulk bands, and surface modes. T
- he Rayleigh wave.
- Surface phonon anomalies.
- Vibrational and thermal desorption spectroscopies.
- Surface Debye temperature.
Surface Electronic properties.
- The jellium model: internal potential and work function.
- The surface dipole layer and the face dependence of the work function.
- Surface band structure, and density of states at the surface and surface states.
- The image states and implication for photochemistry.
- Electronic excitations and surface plasmons.
Graphene and other two dimensional crystals.
- Electronic properties and lattice dynamics in purely two dimensional systems.
Adsorption of gases and catalysis.
- Self assembled monolayers and artificial nanostructures.
- Physisorption vs Chemisorption.
- Gas surface interaction.
- Precursor states.
- Activated adsorption.
- Examples of catalytic reactions in the heterogeneous phase.
Laboratory training (12 hours).
- Low energy electron diffraction.
- X ray photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopies.
- Scanning probe microscopies: STM, AFM.
Understanding the physical and chemical properties of surfaces and of nanosized objects and how the principal surface sensitive microscopies and spectroscopies work.
Introduction to solid state properties, principles of Quantum Mechanics
- Gabor A. Somorjai and Yimin Li: Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, second edition, Wiley.
- Teacher’s slides and other material will be provided to the students by the teacher.